Chapter 8 Definitions

MOTIVE a specific need desire or want such as hunger, thirst, achievement, that prompts goal-oriented behaviors
EMOTION feeling such as fear, joy or surprise that underlies behavior
INSTINCTS in born, inflexible, goal-directed behavior that is characteristic of a species
DRIVE state of tension or arousal brought on by biological needs
DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY motivated behavior is aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension or arousal and returning the body to homeostasis
HOMEOSTASIS state of balance and stability in which organism functions effectively
INCENTIVES external stimulus that prompts goal-directed behavior
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION a desire to perform a behavior that originates within individual
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION desire to perform to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
PRIMARY DRIVES physiologically based unlearned motive such as hunger thirst, sex, common to all animals
SET POINT a homeostatic mechanism in the body that regulates metabolism, fat storage and food intake so as to maintain a preprogrammed weight
ANOREXIA NERVOSA eating disorder associated with intense fear of weight gain and distorted body image
BULIMIA eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting
STIMULUS MOTIVES unlearned motive, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us. curiosity, exploration, manipulation and contact
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE the need to excel to overcome obstacles; a social motive -varies person to person
POWER MOTIVE the need to win recognition or to influence or control other people or groups, a social motive
AFFILIATION MOTIVE the need to be with others; a social motive
YERKES-DODSON LAW states that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates
JAMES-LANGE THEORY states that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies, and emotions result from those physiological changes
CANNON-BARD THEORY states that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes
COGNITIVE THEORY states that emotional experience depends on one's perception or judgment of the situation one is in
DISPLAY RULES culture specific rules that govern how, when, and why facial expressions of emotions are displayed
PLUTCHIK'S EIGHT CATEGORIES OF EMOTION basic emotions; fear,surprise, sadness, disgust,anger, anticipation, joy and acceptance-emotions adjacent to each other are more similar than those across from it-different emotions combine to form more complex emotions
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from bottom up: physiological needs,safety needs, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization