COGNITION the processes whereby we acquire and use knowledge
PHONEMES the basic sounds that make up a language (meaningless sounds) e.g. 'th' 't' 'k'
MORPHEMES the smallest meaningful units of speech-simple words or prefix/suffix e.g. 'un' 'pre' 'ing'
SENTENCES a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Contains at least a subject and verb. Sentences have both surface structure and deep structure
SURFACE STRUCTURE the particular words or phrases used to make up a sentence.
DEEP STRUCTURE the underlying meaning of a sentence.
GRAMMAR the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning with in a language (for both spoken and signed languages)
SEMANTICS system by which we assign meaning to morphemes
SYNTAX system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences- e.g. in English adjectives come before nouns
IMAGE A mental representation of a sensory experience
CONCEPT a mental category for classifying objects, people, experiences ..example categories: dogs, books, houses
PROTOTYPE according to Rosch, a mental image containing the most typical features of a concept
LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY The idea that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person's thoughts (Whorf)
PROBLEM REPRESENTATION the first step in solving a problem; it involves interpreting or defining the problem
TRIAL AND ERROR works best with limited choices
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL look to methods used in past-works if quick solution needed
ALGORITHM a step by step method that guarantees a correct solution eg. math rules 4 x 4=16
HEURISTICS a rule of thumb that helps in simplifying and solving problems, although they do not guarantee correct solution (may get you to within reach) include: hill climbing, subgoals, means-end analysis, working backwards
HILL CLIMBING a heuristic problem solving strategy in which each step moves closer to goal (step-by-step evaluation) eg. multiple choice question-first eliminate wrong answers
SUB GOALS intermediate, more manageable parts used in one heuristic strategy to make it easier to reach final goals
MEANS-END ANALYSIS heuristic strategy to reduce discrepancy between current situation and desired goal at a number of intermediate points eg. walk a batter to avoid bit hit
WORKING BACKWARDS begin at goal and work backward. Use if there is more information about end than given eg. have $100 spend amount and subtract what is left, spend more subtract
SET the tendency to perceive and to approach problem in certain ways- CAN BE HELPFUL OR OBSTACLE
FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, thus interfering with problem solving
BRAINSTORMING problem solving strategy where individual/group produce numerous ideas and evaluate them after collected
DIVERGENT THINKING thinking outwards using originality being inventive flexible ALSO KNOWN AS LATERAL THINKING
CONVERGENT THINKING thinking directed to one correct solution
COMPENSATORY MODEL rational decision-making model where choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria
NONCOMPENSATORY MODEL a decision making model where weakness in one or more criteria are not offset by strengths in other criteria
REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTIC a heuristic by which a new situation is judged as basis of resemblance too stereotypical model
AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC a heuristic where a judgment or decision is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory
CONFIRMATION BIAS tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief
INTELLIGENCE a general term referring to the ability or abilities involved in learning and adaptive behaviour
Triarchic Theory Of Intelligence Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of 3 parts: the componential, the contextual, and the experiential
COMPONENTIAL INTELLIGENCE according to Sternberg, the ability to acquire new knowledge, to solve problems effectively
EXPERIENTIAL INTELLIGENCE Stenberg term for the ability to adapt creatively in new situations, to use insight
CONTEXTUAL INTELLIGENCE Sternberg term for the ability to select contexts where you can expect you can excel, to shape environment to fir your strengths
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) a numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test; based on a score of 100 for average intelligence
WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE-3RD EDITION REVISED (WAIS-IIIR) an individual intelligence test developed especially for adults; measures both verbal and performance abilities
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN-3RD EDITION (WISC-III) an individual intelligence test developed especially for school- aged children; measures verbal and performance abilities and yields an overall IQ score
GROUP TESTS written intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time
Norms standards based on the range of test scores of a large group of people who are selected to provide the bases of comparison for those who will take the test later
Deviation Score a test score calculated by comparing an individual's score with the scores of others of the same age whom the test was normed
PERFORMANCE TESTS intelligence tests that minimize the use of language (Sequin Form Board, Porteus Maze)
CULTURE-FAIR TESTS intelligence tests designed to eliminate cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another (Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Progressive Matrices)
RELIABILITY ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores
SPLIT-HALF RELIABILITY a method of determining test reliability by dividing the test into two part and checking the agreement of scores on both parts
VALIDITY ability of a test to measure what it has been designed to measure
CONTENT VALIDITY refers to test having an adequate sample of questions measuring skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure (eg. planning, memory, understanding, reasoning, language)
CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY validity of test as measured by a comparison of test score and independent measures of what test designed to measure (school achievement)
CREATIVITY the ability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects
Standardization The establishment of norms for comparing the scores of people who will take the test in the future, administering tests using a prescribed procedure
Longitudinal Study A type of developmental study where the same group of participants is followed and measured at different ages
Nature-Nurture controversy debate over whether intelligence and other traits are primarily the result of heredity or environment
Psycholinguistics the meaning or the study of meaning derived from morphemes, words and sentences



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2003 Karen E.Hamilton