CHAPTER 6 - MEMORY- DEFINITIONS

INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL a computer-like model used to describe way humans encode, store and retrieve information.
THE SENSORY MEMORY REGISTERS: entry points for raw information from senses (like waiting room where information stays for short time; unlimited storage capacity but information disappears rapidly -memory system that holds information coming in through the senses for a period ranging from a fraction of a second to several seconds
ATTENTION: the selection of some incoming information for further processing
SHORT TERM MEMORY (STM) he second stage of memory which holds about seven (5-9) items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; working memory briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers
Encoding Noticing and transforming information into a form that can be stored in short-term or long term memory
Selective Attention Focussing on one piece of infarction while placing other information in the background
Storage The act of maintaining information in memory
Consolidation The presumed process, believed to involve the hippocampus by which a permanent memory is formed
Retrieval The act of bringing to mind material that has been stored in memory
CHUNKING: grouping information into meaningful units for easier handling by short term memory
DECAY THEORY: theory that the passages of time causes forgetting
Displacement: event that occurs when short-term memory is holding its maximum and each new item entering short-term memory pushes out an existing item
INTERFERENCE THEORY theory argues that interference from other information causes forgetting
ROTE REHEARSAL: retaining information in short term memory by repeating over and over
ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL linking new information in short term memory to familiar material stored in long term memory
RETROGRADE AMNESIA the inability to recall events immediately preceding an accident or injury but without a loss of earlier memory
LONG TERM MEMORY (LTM) the portion of memory that is more or less permanent corresponding to everything we know
SEMANTIC MEMORY the portion of long term memory that stores general facts and information (like encyclopedia/dictionary)
EPISODIC MEMORY the portion of long term memory that stores specific information that has personal meaning (like a diary)
EXPLICIT MEMORY/Declarative Memory: memory for information intentionally committed to memory or intentionally retrieved from memory; subsystem within long-term memory that stores facts, information and personal life experiences;
IMPLICIT MEMORY/
Non-declarative Memory
memory for information that was either unintentionally committed to memory or unintentionally retrieved e.g.. recall for where information was on page;subsystem within long-term memory consisting of skills acquired through repetitive practice, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses
TIP OF TONGUE PHENOMENON -more frequent during stress -other words similar recalled and interfere -harder you try harder to find -best method -->stop trying to find -occurs most often with words seldom used -weak links
RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE process where new info interferes with old info already in memory-eg. learn new method canŐt recall original
PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE process where old material already in memory interferes with new info
SCHEMA (plural SCHEMATA) a set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience; the integrated frameworks of knowledge and assumptions we have about people, objects and events which affect how we encode and recall information
Recall a measure of retention that requires one to remember material with few or no retrieval cues, as in an essay test
Retrieval any stimulus or bit of information that aids in the retrieval of particular information from long-term memory
Recognition a measure of retention that requires one to identify material as familiar, or as having been encountered before
FLASHBULB MEMORIES a vivid memory of a certain event and incidents surrounding it even long after time has passed
Encoding Failure forgetting resulting from material never having been put into long-term memory
Consolidation Failure any disruption in the consolidation process that prevents a permanent memory from forming
Decay Theory a theory of forgetting that holds that the memory trace, if not used, disappears with the passage of time
Reconstruction a memory that is not an exact replica of an event but has been pieced together from a few highlights, with the use of information that may or may not be accurate
Serial Position Effect the tendency to recall the beginning and ending items better than the middle items
Primacy Effect the tendency to recall the first items on a list more readily than the middle items
Recency Effect the tendency to recall the last items on ails more readily than those in the middle
State-Dependent Memory Effect tendency to recall information better if one is in the same pharmacological or psychological (mood) state as when the information was encoded
Context-dependent Memory elements of environment get encoded in memory

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2003 Karen E.Hamilton