Therapies - Chapter 13 - Definitions

TERM
DEFINITION
INSIGHT THERAPIES a variety of individual psychotherapies designed to give people a better awareness and understanding of their feelings, motivations and actions in hope that this will help their adjustment
PSYCHOTHERAPY: the use of psychological techniques to treat personality disorders
PSYCHOANALYSIS: The theory of personality Freud developed as well as the form of therapy he invented
FREE ASSOCIATION: a psychoanalytical technique that encourages the patient to talk without inhibition about whatever thoughts or fantasies come to mind
TRANSFERENCE: the patient carries over to analyst feelings held toward authority figures
INSIGHT: awareness of previously unconscious feelings and memories and how they influence present feelings and behaviour
CLIENT-CENTRED (PERSON-CENTRED) THERAPY: Carl Roger's non directional form of therapy calling for unconditional positive regard of the client with the goal of helping the client to become fully functioning
GESTALT THERAPY: an insight therapy emphasizing wholeness of personality and attempt to reawaken people to their emotions and sensations in here and now.
SHORT-TERM PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY: insight therapy that is time-limited and focused on trying to help client correct immediate
BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES: therapeutic approach based on the belief that all behaviour, normal and abnormal, is learned and that the objective is to teach people new more satisfying ways of behaving
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION: a behavioural technique for reducing fear and anxiety by gradually associating a new response (relaxation) with stimuli that have been causing the fear and anxiety
FLOODING: behaviour technique involves full intensity exposure to feared stimulus for prolonged time
AVERSIVE CONDITIONING: Behavioural therapy to eliminate undesirable behaviour patterns by teaching the person to associate them with pain and discomfort.
BEHAVIOUR CONTRACTING: form of operant conditioning therapy where client and therapist set behaviour goals and agree on reinforcements upon reaching goals
TOKEN ECONOMY: an operant conditioning therapy where patients earn tokens (reinforcers) for desired behaviours and exchange them for desired items of privileges
MODELLING: a behaviour therapy where a person learns desired behaviours by watching others perform those behaviours
COGNITIVE THERAPIES: psychotherapies that emphasize changing a perception of a life situation as a way of modifying behaviour
STRESS-INNOCULATION THERAPY: a type of cognitive therapy that trains client to cope with stressful situations by learning a more useful pattern of self-talk
RATIONAL-EMOTIVE THERAPY (RET): a directive cognitive therapy based on the ideas that psychological distress is caused by irrational and self-defeating beliefs and that the therapist job is to challenge dysfunctional beliefs
COGNITIVE THERAPY: therapy that depends on identifying and changing inappropriately negative and self-critical patterns of thought
GROUP THERAPIES: psychotherapy where clients meet regularly to interact and help one another achieve insight into feelings and behaviour
FAMILY THERAPY: a form of group therapy that sees the family as at least partly responsible for individual's problems and that seeks to change all family members behaviours to benefit the family unit as well as the troubled individual
COUPLE THERAPY: a from of group therapy intended to help troubled partners improve their problems of communication and interaction
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS: a group of approaches including medications, electroconvulsive, psychosurgery that are sometimes used to treat psychological disorders in conjunction with or instead of psychotherapy
ANTI PSYCHOTIC DRUGS: drugs used to treat very severe psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia
ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT): biological therapy where a mild electrical current is passed through the brain for short period, often producing convulsions and temporary coma, used to treat severe prolonged depression
PSYCHOSURGERY: Brain surgery performed to change behaviour and emotional state; a biological therapy rarely used today
DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION: treating people with severe psychological disorders in larger community or small residential centres such as half way houses, rather than large public hospitals
PRIMARY PREVENTION: techniques and programs to improve the social environment so that new cases of mental disorders do not develop
SECONDARY PREVENTION: program to identify those at high risk for mental disorders and to detect maladaptive behaviour and to treat it promptly
TERTIARY PREVENTION: programs to help people adjust to community life after release from hospital

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