PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS --CHAPTER 12

TERM
DEFINITION
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER when behaviour is either maladaptive for life functioning or when it causes personal discomfort or both
BIOLOGICAL MODEL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: psychological disorders have biochemical/physiological basis
PSYCHOANALYTICAL MODEL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: psychological disorder result of unconscious internal conflicts
COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL MODEL of psychological disorders: psychological disorders result from learning maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving
DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: people biologically predisposed to a mental disorder ( those with a diathesis) will tend to exhibit that disorder when particularly affected by stress
DIATHESIS: biological predisposition
SYSTEMS APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: biological, psychological and social risk factors combine to produce psychological disorders. Also know as the biopsychosocial model of psychological disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -DSM-IV: diagnostic manual written by APA which lists mental disorders and their behaviour descriptions
MOOD DISORDERS: disturbances in mood or prolonged emotional state, sometimes referred to as affect
DEPRESSION: mood disorder characterized by overwhelming feelings of sadness, lack of interest in activities, and perhaps excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness
MANIA: a mood disorder characterized by euphoric states, extreme physical activity, excessive talkativeness, and sometimes grandiosity
BIPOLAR DISORDER: a mood disorder where periods of mania and depression alternate, sometimes with periods of normal mood
COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS : an illogical and maladaptive response to early negative life events that leads to feelings of incompetence and unworthiness that are reactivated whenever a new situation arises that resembles the original event
ANXIETY DISORDERS: anxiety is a characteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behaviour
SPECIFIC PHOBIAS: anxiety disorders characterized by intense paralyzing fear of something (excessive and unreasonable)
SOCIAL PHOBIA: anxiety disorder characterized by excessive inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of others
AGORAPHOBIA: multiple intense fear of crowds, public places, and situations requiring separation from security source such as home or loved one
PANIC DISORDER: anxiety disorder with recurrent panic attacks where person suddenly experiences intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER: anxiety disorder where prolonged vague but intense fears not attached to any particular object or circumstance
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER: an anxiety disorder where person driven to think disturbing thoughts and perform senseless rituals
POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: anxiety disorder where hyperarousal, avoidance of situations that recall trauma and reexperiencing of previous trauma
PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS: disorders where there is real physical illness that is largely caused by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety
SOMATOFORM DISORDERS: disorders where there is an apparent physical illness for which there is no organic basis
CONVERSION DISORDERS: somatoform disorders where dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems
HYPOCHODRIASIS: somatoform disorder where person interprets insignificant symptoms as signs of serious illness in the absence of any organic evidence
BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER: a somatoform disorder where person becomes so preoccupied with his/her imagined ugliness that normal life is impossible
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER: some aspect of personality seems separated from the rest
DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER a dissociative disorder whose essential feature is that the person suddenly feels changed or different in a strange way
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: loss or impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual function
PARAPHILIAS: sexual disorders in which unconventional objects or situations cause sexual arousal
FETISHISM: a paraphilia where a nonhuman object is the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
PEDOPHILIA desire to have sexual relations with children as preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
GENDER-IDENTITY DISORDERS: disorders that involve the desire to become, or the insistence that one is a member of the other biological sex
PERSONALITY DISORDERS: disorders in which inflexible and maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving learned early in life cause distress to the person and /or conflicts with others
SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder in which person is withdrawn and lacks feeling to others ( appear vague, distant,in a fog.
PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder in which the person is inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others
DEPENDENT PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and can not tolerate being alone
AVOIDANT PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder where fear of rejection by others leads to social isolation
NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder where person has an exaggerated sense of self-importance and needs constant admiration
BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder with marked instability in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships (act impulsively,self-destructive,uncomfortable alone,manipulative)
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER: personality disorder that involves a pattern of violent, criminal, or unethical and exploitive behaviour and an inability to feel affection for others (the charming con)
SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS: severe disorders in which there are disturbances of thoughts, communications and emotions including delusions and hallucinations
INSANITY: legal term for mentally disturbed who is not responsible for criminal acts
HALLUCINATIONS: sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulation
DELUSIONS: false beliefs about reality that have no basis in fact
DISORGANIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA: schizophrenic disorder in which bizarre and childlike behaviours are common (giggling, grimacing, incoherent)
CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA: motor activity is severely disturbed (immobile, mute, impassive, robot like- but may talk and shout continuously)
PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA: schizophrenic disorder marked by extreme suspiciousness and complex, bizarre delusions (may believe they are famous person )
UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIA: schizophrenic disorder where there are clear schizophrenic symptoms that do not meet criteria of other subtype ( delusions, hallucinations, incoherence
ATTENTION DEFICIT /HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER --ADHD: a childhood disorder characterized by inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity
AUTISTIC DISORDER: childhood disorder with lack of social instincts and strange motor behaviour

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