Personality Chapter 10

Definitions

PERSONALITY an individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings,and behaviours that persists over time across situations
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES behaviour results from psychological dynamics that interact within the individual often outside awareness
UNCONSCIOUS in Freud, all the ideas, thoughts and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware of
PSYCHOANALYSIS theory developed by Freud as well as the form of therapy he invented
ID the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression-the pleasure principle-as instinct arises Id seeks to satisfy (FREUD)
PLEASURE PRINCIPLE the way ID seeks immediate gratification of an instinct (FREUD)
EGO part of personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego) and instinctual needs (ID), now often used as synonym for self (FREUD)
REALITY PRINCIPLE the way ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in real world (FREUD)
SUPEREGO the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and ego ideal (FREUD)
EGO IDEAL the part of superego that consists of standards of what one wants to be (perfection) (FREUD)
LIBIDO the energy generated by the sexual instinct (FREUD)
FREUD'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT ORAL, ANAL, PHALLIC,,LATENCY, GENITAL
ORAL STAGE first stage during first 18 months-infants erotic feelings centre on mouth lips, tongue (FREUD)
FIXATION a partial or complete halt at some point of individualŐs psychosexual development-can occur at any stage of development (e.g., if child deprived of oral pleasure or allowed too much)
ANAL STAGE second stage (18 MOs- 3.5 years) childŐs erotic feelings centre on anus an elimination
PHALLIC STAGE third stage (after 3) -erotic feelings centre on genitals-develop attachment to parent of opposite sex
OEDIPUS/ELECTRA COMPLEX a child's sexual attachment to parent of opposite sex and jealousy of same sex parent-generally occurs in phallic stage
LATENCY when child appears to have no interest in other sex (5/6-12/13 years) after phallic stage
GENITAL STAGE final stage after latency-normal adult sexual development usually sexual maturity
PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS one of two levels of the unconscious containing individual repressed thought, forgotten experience and undeveloped ideas (Jung)
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS Level of unconscious inherited and common to all members of species (Jung)
ARCHETYPES thought forms common to all human beings stored in collective unconscious (Jung)
PERSONA our public self, the mask we put on to represent ourselves
ANIMA the female archetype as expressed in male personality (Jung)
ANIMUS the male archetype as expressed in female personality (Jung)
COMPENSATION person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness (Adler)
INFERIORITY COMPLEX fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional/social paralysis (Adler)
NEUROTIC TRENDS irrational strategies to cope with emotional problems and minimize anxiety (submission, aggression,detachment)
ERICKSON: STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT 1. TRUST V MISTRUST ..2. AUTONOMY V SHAME AND DOUBT..3. INITIATIVE V GUILT ..4. INDUSTRY V INFERIORITY ..5. IDENTITY V ROLE CONFUSION ..6. INTIMACY V ISOLATION ..7. GENERATIVITY V STAGNATION ..8. EGO INTEGRITY V DESPAIR
HUMANISTIC PERSONALITY THEORY focus on fundamental goodness of people and striving toward higher levels of functioning
ACTUALIZING TENDENCY drive of every organism to fulfill biological potential and to become what capable of (ROGERS)
SELF ACTUALIZING TENDENCY human drive to fulfill self concept or image of self (Rogers)
FULLY FUNCTIONING PERSON individual whose self concept resembles capacity/potential (Rogers)
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD full acceptance and love of another regardless of that person's behaviour
PERSONALITY TRAITS dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways
FACTOR ANALYSIS a statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used by Cattell to identify trait clusters
THE BIG FIVE (TRAITS) EXTROVERSION/ AGREEABLENESS/ CONSCIENTIOUSNESS-DEPENDABILITY/ EMOTIONAL STABILITY/ CULTURE-INTELLECT-OPENESS: five traits or basic dimensions currently thought to be of central importance in describing personality
COGNITIVE-SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES behaviour as product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences and the immediate environment
EXPECTANCIES what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways (Bandura)
LOCUS OF CONTROL an expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal or external control (Rotter)
SELF-EFFICACY the expectancy that one's efforts will be successful (Bandura)
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behaviour in a variety of situations (Bandura)
RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM the concept that a person influences the environment and is in turn influenced by the environment
OBJECTIVE TESTS personality tests administered and scored in standard way
16 PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE objective personality test created by Cattell tha t provides scores on the 16 traits he identified
MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI) the most widely used objective test originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis
PROJECTIVE TESTS personality tests such as Rorschach ink blot test consists of ambiguous or unstructured material
RORSCHACH TEAT

a projective test of ambiguous inkblots; the way people interpret the blots reveals aspects of personality

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT) a projective test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write a complete story (20 cards)

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