INTELLIGENCE COGNITION, AND LANGUAGE (CHAPTER 7)


INTELLIGENCE AND MENTAL ABILITIES

What is intelligence and how is it related to creativity?

American Psychological Association defined intelligence as "ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to environment, to learn from experience, engage in forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by taking thought."

Theories of Intelligence

EARLY THEORIST CHARLES SPEARMAN

g factor Spearman's term for a general intellectual ability that underlies all mental operations to some degree

LL THURSTONE (American)

Primary Mental Abilities According to Thurstone, seven relatively distinct abilities that singularly or in combination are involved in all intellectual activities

JP Guilford's Structure of Intellect (1967)

RB CATTELL (1971) AMERICAN

CONTEMPORARY THEORISTS

ROBERT STERNBERG- TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE

Triarchic Theory Of Intelligence Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of 3 parts: the componential, the contextual, and the experiential

Triarchic Theory Of Intelligence
Componential: mental abilities closely related to conventional IQ achievement tests
Experiential: creativity and insight (difficult to measure)
Contextual: practical intelligence-street smarts, common sense-the survivor adapts well

HOWARD GARDNER-THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

MEASURING INTELLIGENCE --TESTS
What tests are used today? What do they measure?

THE STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALE

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) an index of intelligence originally derived by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100
Norms standards based on the range of test scores of a large group of people who are selected to provide the bases of comparison for those who will take the test later
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale an individually administered IQ test for those aged 2 to 23; Lewis Terman's adaptation of the Binet-Simon Scale
Deviation Score a test score calculated by comparing an individual's score with the scores of others of the same age whom the test was normed
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) an individual intelligence test for adults that yields separate verbal and performance (non-verbal)IQ scores as well as an overall IQ score

WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE scales


PERFORMANCE AND CULTURE FAIR TESTS

  1. RELIABILITY: dependability, consistency- a clock that goes off at same time how do we know reliability? -give test once them give test again same score? How do we know memory from before?- two equivalent tests -most intelligence test scores stable-performance and culture fair are less stable reliable but even best test results vary

  2. VALIDITY: tests ability to to measure what it is designed to measure
  3. STANDARDIZATION: once test is proven reliable and valid, it needs standard procedures for its administration- it involves establishing norms by which all scores are interpreted-groups scores analyzed and average score, standard deviation, percentile and other measures computed-comparative scores become norms
Reliability the ability of a test to yield nearly the same result each time a person takes the test or an alternate form of the same test
Validity The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
Standardization The establishment of norms for comparing the scores of people who will take the test in the future, administering tests using a prescribed procedure
Longitudinal Study A type of developmental study where the same group of participants is followed and measured at different ages

 

CRITICISMS OF IQ TESTS

  1. NARROWNESS OF CONTENT
    -a limited set of skills tested: passive verbal understanding, ability to follow instructions, common sense, scholastic aptitude -solving unimportant problems -do measure ability to take tests-academics require tests

  2. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MINORITY
    -requires mastery of English- bias in favour upper/middle white IQ

  3. PERFORMANCE CONNECTION -testing to put student into track may backfire-self-fulfilling prophecy -both stress verbal abilities both require motivation, attention, perseverance -predict success in school with some accuracy

IQ does not equal intelligence. IQ fairly good predictor of academic achievement, not occupational success

HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT AND INTELLIGENCE

Culture-fair intelligence test an intelligence test designed to minimize cultural bias by using questions that do not penalize individuals whose culture of language differs from urban middle or upper class
Nature-Nurture controversy debate over whether intelligence and other traits are primarily the result of heredity or environment
Behavioural Genetics a field of research investigating the relative effects of heredity and environment on behaviour and ability
Twin Study Method studying identical and fraternal twins to determine the relative effects of heredity and environment on a variety of characteristics
Identical Twins twins with identical genes, monozygotic twins
Fraternal Twins twins who are no more alike genetically than ordinary brothers and sisters; dizygotic twins
Heritability an index of the degree to which a characteristic is estimated to be influenced by heredity
Adoption Method a method researchers use to study the relative effects of heredity and environment on behaviour and ability in children who are adopted shortly after birth by comparing them with their biological and adoptive parents


What determines individual differences in intelligence? -inherited? environment?

ENVIRONMENT

Status adoptive parent vs Low Socio status parent

example Milwaukee Project 1961 -intervened in family 40 poor women pregnant split to 2 groups
group 1: mothers given special training in infant education nutrition -children spent day with professionals getting better food
group 2: no treatment

experimental group had IQ 51 points higher than mother

control group had higher IQ than mother also not as much from testing?

Head Start 1965-involves parents-boosts cognitive skills -effectiveness depends on quality of program and clearly defined goals IQ debate both heredity and environment affect

MENTAL ABILITIES AND HUMAN DIVERSITY

CREATIVITY

How does creativity relate to intelligence?

FACTORS PROMOTING CREATIVITY

1.mild mood swings-mildly elated- emotional high- may give energy to create

2. Novel circumstances may stimulate-travel, choosing task and enjoy it -demand and competition may inhibit

3. Be willing to take risks -creative people are problem solvers and problem finders

CREATIVITY TESTS Can we measure it?

Creativity The ability to produce original, appropriate and valuable ideas and or solutions to problems
Divergent Thinking Producing one or more possible ideas, answers, or solutions to a problem rather than a single, correct response

PROBLEM SOLVING

Exemplars the individual instances of a concept that we have stored in memory from our own experience
Trial and Error an approach to problem solving where one solution after another is tried in no particular order until a workable solution is found
Algorithm A systematic step-by-step procedure such as a mathematical formula that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if the algorithm is appropriate and executed properly
Heuristic a problem solving method that offers a promising way to attack a problem and arrive at a solution, although it does not guarantee success
Means End Analysis a heuristic problem solving strategy in which the current position is compared with desired goal and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them
Working Backward a heuristic strategy in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem by defining the desired goal and working backward to the current condition
Functional Fixedness The failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions
Mental set The tendency to apply a familiar strategy to the solution of a problem without carefully considering the special requirements of the problem

 

What are general aspects of problem solving?

SIMPLE problem

1: you have three measuring spoons.
One is filled with 8 teaspoons
The other two are empty and have a capacity of 2 teaspoons

Divide the salt among the spoons so that 4 teaspoons remains in largest spoon

MORE COMPLEX problem 3 :

you have three measuring spoons
One is filled with 8 teaspoons of salt
second and third are empty
spoon 'b' holds 5 teaspoons spoon 'c' holds 3 teaspoons

Divide the salt so that spoon 'a' and 'b; both have 4 teaspoons

1. INTERPRETATION OF PROBLEM

2. PRODUCING STRATEGIES AND EVALUATING PROGRESS

OBSTACLES TO SOLVING PROBLEMS

CULTURE AND CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING?

To Be a Better Problem Solver

1. eliminate poor choices -list all possible choices eliminate bad ones

2. Visualize a solution -diagram- draw picture

3. Develop expertise -learn all you can- cross reference

4. Think flexibly -use divergent thinking

DECISION MAKING

How does decision making differ from problem solving?

LOGICAL DECISION MAKING

WHEN HEURISTICS CAN LEAD ASTRAY

What are the building blocks of thought?

language, images, concepts are used simultaneously

LANGUAGE What steps turn a thought into a statement?

Psycholinguistics the study of how language is acquired, produced, and used and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning
Phonemes the smallest units of sound in a spoken language
Morphemes the smallest units of meaning in a language
Syntax the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences
Semantics the meaning or the study of meaning derived from morphemes, words and sentences

 

Phonemes

Morphemes

phonemes-->morphemes--> words--->sentences----> story

SENTENCES -sentences have both surface structure and deep structure

PROCESS: 1. thought 2. choose words 3. produce speech

THIS IS TOP--->DOWN PROCESSING

GRAMMAR

NOAM CHOMSKY (57)-pioneered study of language- he worked out a formula of how grammar works-tranformational grammar

example semantics- a large striped cat---> tiger

add "ed" to word makes it past tense

and "ing" -currently

IMAGES -using images allows thinking in a non-verbal way

-a picture worth a thousand words- a graph can explain simply -images allow us to use concrete forms to represent complex and abstract ideas

CONCEPTS

Imagery The representation in the mind of a sensory experience-visual, auditory, gustatory,motor, olfactory or tactile
Concept A label that represents a class or group of objects, people, or events sharing common characteristics or attributes
Prototype The example that embodies the most common and typical features of a particular concept

 

PROTOTYPE: -example ==when we think of bird we may think of robin and when we see image compare the feature and then say yes that is bird --fit yes/no

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT

Does language affect the way we think?

some say yes -experiment with colour- the commonly named were more readily coded (red, yellow, blue vs the more uncommon- light blue, etc. -the ease to process and remember linked to naming

Linguistic Relativity The idea that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person's thoughts

WHORF (56) Linguistic Relativity -


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2003 Karen E.Hamilton