MEMORY


Why are some better at remembering?
Is it skill? Hereditary?
Why is it easier to remember sports statistics rather than exam answers?

How accurate is eyewitness testimony?

EBBINGHAUS

Processes in Memory: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Encoding Noticing and transforming information into a form that can be stored in short-term or long term memory
Selective Attention Focussing on one piece of infarction while placing other information in the background
Storage The act of maintaining information in memory
Consolidation The presumed process, believed to involve the hippocampus by which a permanent memory is formed
Retrieval The act of bringing to mind material that has been stored in memory


THREE MEMORY SYSTEMS:

Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory says there are 3 interacting systems of memory: Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory

Sensory Memory memory system that holds information coming in through the senses for a period ranging from a fraction of a second to several seconds
Short Term Memory (STM) the second stage of memory which holds about seven (5-9) items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; working memory; the mental workspace we use to keep in mind tasks we are thinking about at any given moment
Long-Term Memory (LTM) the relatively permanent memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity

Sensory Memory: Images, Echoes

Visual register

Short Term Memory:Short, and Small Capacity

Displacement: event that occurs when short-term memory is holding its maximum and each new item entering short-term memory pushes out an existing item
Rehearsal: The act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory or to transfer it to long-term memory

SHORT TERM MEMORY (STM):

used to hold conversation, solve problem, remember to complete task

Tasks of STM
1. to store briefly
2. to work on that info

Capacity of Short Term Memory

CHUNKING


STM performs more than one task at time

ENCODING IN SHORT TERM MEMORY

1.PHONETICALLY -strings of letters/numbers are stored phonetically -in experiments people usually mix up things that are similar sound alike or spoken alike e.g.- man mat mad cap more difficult than pit day cow bar

2. VISUAL MAP -capacity for visual encoding in STM exceeds phonological experiment- subjects given verbal description---> match features picture---> match features -visual more efficiently encoded than verbal

RETENTION AND RETRIEVAL-THEORIES
Why do we forget what's in STM?

INITIAL PROCESSING
Why does one thing capture attention over others?

Anne TREISMAN (1960)

LONG TERM MEMORY (LTM)
-e.g.. Results on last exam, name of dog, date of birth

Non-declarative Memory: subsystem within long-term memory consisting of skills acquired through repetitive practice, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses; also called implicit memory
Declarative Memory: subsystem within long-term memory that stores facts, information and personal life experiences; also called explicit memory
Episodic Memory: subpart of declarative memory that contains memories of personally experienced events
Semantic Memory: subpart of declarative memory that stores general knowledge; our mental encyclopedia/dictionary


ENDEL TULVING U of T contended LTM divided into separate memory systems

ENCODING IN LONG TERM MEMORY

Can you Identify caller on phone? know sound of guitar?


IMPLICIT/EXPLICIT MEMORY
Do we recall things not intended?

Levels of Processing Model

MEASURING MEMORY

Recall a measure of retention that requires one to remember material with few or no retrieval cues, as in an essay test
Retrieval any stimulus or bit of information that aids in the retrieval of particular information from long-term memory
Recognition a measure of retention that requires one to identify material as familiar, or as having been encountered before


STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL IN LTM

CAUSES OF FORGETTING

TIP OF TONGUE PHENOMENON
* more frequent during stress
* other words similar recalled and interfere
* harder you try harder to find
* best method stop trying to find
* occurs most often with words seldom used -weak links

Encoding Failure forgetting resulting from material never having been put into long-term memory
Consolidation Failure any disruption in the consolidation process that prevents a permanent memory from forming
Retrograde Amnesia a loss of memory for events occurring during a period of time preceding a brain trauma that caused a loss of consciousness
Decay Theory a theory of forgetting that holds that the memory trace, if not used, disappears with the passage of time
Interference the cause of memory loss that occurs when information or associations stored either before or after a given memory hinder our ability to remember it.
Proactive Interference- information from before hinders new information
Retroactive Interference-New information hinders old information


Interference -often is reason for not recalling info -2 directions

to learn successfully and avoid interference-make new information distinctive

SCHEMATA AND MEMORY

Reconstruction a memory that is not an exact replica of an event but has been pieced together from a few highlights, with the use of information that may or may not be accurate
Schemas the integrated frameworks of knowledge and assumptions we have about people, objects and events which affect how we encode and recall information


FREDRIC BARTLETT
(1886-1969)

Purpose of schemata:
* framework to fit new information
* helps you to draw inference--stereotype
* to streamline process of retrieving information

People tend to recall "need to know" information


Effects of cues on Retrieval from LTM

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY

GENERALLY EARLIEST MEMORY OF EVENTS ARE OF THINGS THAT CHANGED OUR LIVES (birth of sibling, death of family member)

SPECIAL TOPICS ON MEMORY
Many believe values and customs of culture have effect on what we remember

FLASHBULB MEMORIES

FACTORS AFFECTING RETRIEVAL

Serial Position Effect the tendency to recall the beginning and ending items better than the middle items
Primacy Effect the tendency to recall the first items on a list more readily than the middle items
Recency Effect the tendency to recall the last items on ails more readily than those in the middle
State-Dependent Memory Effect tendency to recall information better if one is in the same pharmacological or psychological (mood) state as when the information was encoded
Context-dependent Memory elements of environment get encoded in memory

 

IMPROVING YOUR MEMORY

1. Develop motivation for remembering-keep interested
2. Practice memory skills-crosswords, puzzles, anagrams scrabble,discuss
3. Be confident about ability to remember-self-doubt leads to anxiety-interfere-relaxation exercise boost ability
4. Minimize distractions-quiet setting
5. Focus on what you want to remember-attention to detail setting emotions
6. Make connections between new material and info in LTM-Mnemonics
7. Use mental imagery-go through rooms of building and leave items in places
8. Use retrieval cues-create routines-put keys in same place-to recall do something unusual
9. Rely on more than memory-notes-calendar- write things immediately



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2003 Karen E.Hamilton